Fourth Industrial Revolution Technologies for Progress in UN Sustainable Development Goals

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Originally published in UN Tech Monitor.

Seeram Ramakrishna, FREng, Everest Chair

Professor & Chair of Circular Economy Taskforce, National University of Singapore

UNESCO EGU2030 Global Expert Group member (

Book: Knowledge-driven Actions: Transforming Higher Education for Global Sustainability, Adrian Parr, Agnes Binagwaho, Andy Stirling, Anna Davies, Cheikh Mbow, Dag Olav Hessen, Helena Bonciani Nader, Jamil Salmi, Melody Brown Burkins, Seeram Ramakrishna, Sol Serrano, Sylvia Schmelkes, Tong Shijun and Tristan McCowan (2022).  UNESCO [61900], 100 pages, ISBN: 978-92-3-100505-3 (


Go to the profile of David Docquier
9 months ago

Hi Seeram, this is an interesting paper. You say in the abstract "Benefits of 4IR include lower greenhouse gas emissions". Do you have in mind references (i.e. peer-reviewed articles) that demonstrate this statement quantitatively? Thanks.

Hi David, sorry for late reply as I could not access this site in recent weeks.  please check this reference

Avenyo, E. and Tregenna, F. (2021). “The effects of technology intensity in man-ufacturing on CO2 emissions: Evidence from developing countries”, Working paper 846.  Technology and Manage-ment Centre for Development, Univer-sity of Oxford.

Thank you, Seeram

Go to the profile of David Docquier
8 months ago

Hi Seeram, thank you for the reference. However, I think this study is very specific (i.e. the effect of technology intensity in manufacturing on CO2 emissions in developing countries), while your paper above is relatively general and mentions a potential of reducing greenhouse gas emissions using 4IR. Are you aware of the Lean ICT report by the Shift Project (, which does not seem to end up with the same conclusion? In any case, I guess the share of technologies in greenhouse gas emissions is under-studied and would deserve higher attention. What do you think? Thanks, David