Rare-earth elements (REE) that are crucial for clean-energy technologies are jealously fought over. Policies and programmes to encourage recycling and recovery could reduce tensions. Here we propose a research perspective on a circular economy for REE with three pillars.
Much has been said about a circular economy in China - yet, a paper on underlying drivers and limitations has been missing and addressing net zero carbon too. It is also timely witnessing geopolitical tensions over supply chain security and interest in China's internal structures.